Today's lesson started off a bit different as my friend came along for support and encouragement. I actually felt like a got a proper briefing of what today's lesson was about. Stalls and then starting on circuits.
When I first heard about stalls and I was going to have to learn how to stall the aircraft I was alittle confused as I have thoughts of stalling in a car. I guess my assumption of what was going to happen or actually how it was going to happen were quite different.
What is a stall?
A stall is the condition that is a result when the critical angle of attack is reached and exceeded. The airflow begins to separate from the top of the wing and leading to a loss of lift. Symptoms of a stall include shaking or shuddering that can be felt through the controls and in your seat, the drag increases, there is a decrease of lift and thus this leads to a loss of altitude, it was mentioned to me that I may experience some yawing or rolling (commonly termed as wing drop) but there was limited reaction of this in the Tecnam. We did roll to one side slightly. also advised that my flight path may have changed with all the movements.
A stall can also happen at any pitch attitude or airspeed as its to do with angle. By increasing the angle of attack and the reduced air speed, pulling the control stick/yoke/column back, low speed flight being established, especially steep turns, pulling out of a dive, landing or encountering a vertical gust of wind.
Leaving Redcliffe and heading to Bribie Island and Caloundra to do my training. Some was based over the forestry land or over sea and climbed to 4500ft and ended up descending to 2000ft.
Learnt and practiced different types of stalls:
- stick is pulled back to stall then let go to balance itself forward to recover
- stick is pulled back to stall then let go to centre/forward to recover but this time with the power pushed in as the nose was facing downwards to recover
- stick is pulled back to stall then let go to centre/forward to recover but this time with the power pushed in as the nose was facing downwards to recover but adding some right rudder the same time as adding power.
So the aim was to recognise the symptoms of approached and developed stalls, how to avoid a stall and to recover from a developed stall with losing the minimum amount of altitude.
I had to understand what the stalling speed was and how the airplane stalls when it is at maximum weight with no flap (wings clean) and flying straight and level with power off. A stall is then made to occur when I progressively raise the nose as the aircraft slows.
Aviation likes its jargon and codes and there are some referring to stalls.
Vs1 is basic stall speed
Vso0 is a stall when full flap extended.
There is a pre-stall checklist called HASELL
H: HEIGHT- 3000ft above ground level
A: AIRFRAME- flaps and landing gear as desired, brakes off and in trim
S: SECURITY- harnesses and hatches are secure, no loose items in the cockpit
E: ENGINE- normal engine operation, fuel contents and selection checked; mixture and carburettor heat (if required)
L: LOCATION- satisfactory, away from controlled air space, towns, active aerodromes and other aircraft; in visual
L: LOOK OUT - make an inspection turn 180 degrees but preferably 360 degrees and to clear the area below you
...once all these checks have been completed, begin the manoeuvre immediately on completion of the clearing turn.
- power off and throttle closed
- to prevent yaw, maintain balance with rudder
- maintain height with elevator
- ailerons neutral
- continue bringing controls/yoke fully back
Symptoms of Approaching Stall:
- decreasing airspeed and noise level
- controls are less firm and effective
- pre-stall warning buzzer heard (not on Tecnam)
- shuddering airframe
- relatively high up nose attitude
Stall Recovery - Without Power:
- moving controls/yoke centrally forward to un-stall the wings
- prevent any yaw and roll with rudder
- attain safe flying speed
- level wings with ailerons if needed
- resume normal flight and regain altitude as required
- height loss should only be 200-300ft approximately
Stall Recovery - With Power:
doing this simultaneously
- move the controls/yoke centrally forward to un-stall the wings
- apply full power smoothly and balance with the rudder
- prevent yaw and rolling with rudder
- attain a safe flying speed
- level wings with ailerons if needed
- raise the nose to a level flight attitude
- height loss 50ft approximately
clean and power off
clean and power on
flapped and power off
flapped and power on
climbing, descending and turning
...next lessons are on circuits (and "bumps")